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A Quick Guide to Science

Science is an organized systematic enterprise that builds and coordinates knowledge in the form of empirical, testable predictions and theoretical predictions about the natural world. It is used to solve some of the most practical problems in life. It involves physical science, like Physics, Chemistry, Astronomy, and Geology; biological science, like Microscopy, Biochemistry, Immunology, and Physiology; chemical science, like Organic chemistry, Chemical theory, Calculus, etc; and mathematical science, like Statistics, Quantum theory, Algebra, calculus, etc. The progress in these sciences is measured by the amount of knowledge possessed by a society or group of people. It also affects the design and development of technology.

The discipline of science can be divided into two general branches, deductive and analytical. Deductive science deals with facts gathered from experience and theory. On the other hand, analytical science deals with the collection, manipulation, and evaluation of evidence and statistical studies on living things, space objects, and human activities. In general, there are three scientific methods employed in science, which are experimental, comparative, and systematic.

Experiments and researches are done to verify and support the known facts and theories in science. It should be remembered, however, that there is more than one kind of science. One type is physics, while others include biology, chemistry, mineralogy, and genetics. All these branches of science have different approaches, goals, techniques, and materials to work with. Each discipline of science has a language of its own, which is communicated through the physical actions and reactions of living organisms, and their respective living counterparts.

The inductive scientific method is the first step in science, where a law or fact is deduced from a set of facts. For instance, in anatomy, we can deduce that a heart is made up of a muscle, a blood vessel, a bone, and other smaller components. Similarly, in physics, we can say that mass is composed of energy particles, simple molecules, free radicals, and other entities. Using these principles, observations and tests are doing to deduce a course of action or reaction from observed facts. Thus, observations, results, and calculations are taking as true or false. In deductive reasoning, a person deduces a true from a false or invalid cause and effect relationship.

In order for us to attain a higher level of science knowledge, there are two main methods, deductive and inductionive. Deductive knowledge is drawn from observation and/or test results, while induction comes from general rules and concepts. These two types of science information gathering are interrelated, and it is common for both science classes to use both at various levels. There are several ways that higher level science information can be acquired. Some examples include using the scientific method in education, publishing research findings, and participating in relevant seminars and workshops.

We can further refine our science information through deductive and inductive reasoning. Deductive knowledge comes from general rules and laws of the natural world and is generally assumed and accepted without question. Inductive knowledge, on the other hand, is based upon a particular hypothesis, idea, or observation. It is further assumed and accepted if further research has either falsified or proven the prior hypothesis(a) true. In either case, the concept is considered to be true, though the strength and/or weakness of the hypothesis(s) is not subject to questioning.

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